Monday, 18 November 2013

Level 3/4 Separatism Essay

Analyse the reasons for separatism within and/or across national boundaries and discuss its consequences (40 marks)

Separatism is an attempt by a regional group within a country or across the borders of one or more countries, to gain more political control from central governments over the areas in which they live. There are many different reasons for why separatism occurs around the world, these can include:
the feeling of being economically depressed compared to other areas within the same country; the fact that some people feel that they are in a peripheral location to economic and political care; the desire to protect and build upon a minority language or religion and the feeling or being mistreated due to being an ethnic minority. Separatism can lead to a wide range of consequences that range from the collapse of governments and civil wars to, more political disputes and peaceful protests. Separatism does not have to be aggressive.

The Sri Lankan civil war is a prime example of where Separatism has led to aggressive consequences, in this case the acts of the Tamil Tigers (a separatist group) led to a civil war that spanned over three decades. The Sri Lankan civil war was fundamentally caused by ethnic discrimination between the ethnic majority Sinhalese and the Tamil minority that populated the north and northeast of the island.  When the British owned Sri Lanka they turned the country into the tea making capital of the world and brought with them a vast amount of wealth and benefits to certain groups. These certain groups where the Hindu Tamils of Sri Lanka and India; furthermore when the British gave Sri Lanka its independence it did not take long for tensions to arise. With the minority Tamils not gaining any political power when Sri Lanka gained its Independence, they were repeatedly repressed and eventually leading a group known as the Tamil Tigers to start an insurgency that would turn into a civil war (1983-2009). This conflict had many consequences. One of which was the massive amount of civilian casualties that occur during many attacks on both sides. During the entire war it is estimated that up to 70% of the 80,000-100,000 people that died in the war were actually civilian casualties. This huge social impact was just accompanied by war crimes such as rape and torture throughout the war and none more so at the end when the government shelled a hospital island and forced the fleeing Tamil civilians into imprisonment camps. On the other hand it was not just the Sri Lankan government that were behind social impacts; the Tamils found themselves being listed as a terrorist organisation by 34 countries due to the suicide bombings they carried out. One of which was outside the world trade centre in the capital city of Colombo which killed 39 people and meant that many were scared to go about their day to day lives. These bombings also led to increased security in main towns and cities and made in increasingly harder for civilians to live a normal life.  However over the course of the war it there were not just social consequences; one environmental impact was the destruction of over 5 million tress. These trees used to supply wildlife with homes and shelters and thus a negative feedback system is being observed in some unique species within different regions in the north of the country. The destruction of these 5 million trees has not only had severe environmental impacts; it has also led to more farmers suffering from poverty as they are missing out of the economic benefits of the forest areas that so many relied on. Unfortunately for the Sri Lankan people and government, the poverty and negative feedback for the destructions of so many trees is not the only or worse economic impact due to the civil war. One of the worst impacts is the fact that the government is still spending up to 30% of its yearly budget paying for damages and the cost of the war (the war is thought to have cost the government $200 billion).

Another example of where Separatism has led to clashes is between the Kurds and the Turkish government (Turkish in particular). In this case the Kurdish people (an ethnic group by their own right, with their own language and traditions) do not have a nation and partition as well as fight for their own country of Kurdistan. The main issue here being that this Kurdistan would take a large chunk out of Turkey and some land out of countries such as Iran and Iraq. This and the fact that the Kurds have their own language and beliefs has led to them being continually persecuted and oppressed. A fine example of where war crimes have been committed against the Kurds is through a genocide by Saddam Hussein in the 90’s.

On the other hand, not all acts of separatism end up leading to aggressive conflicts. The partition by some people and governmental officials in Scotland, which includes the use of protests and voting, is a prime example of where separatism is being resolved peacefully. There are some within Scotland that believe that the only way to preserve and save their native language of Gaelic, is to leave the UK and become their own separate nations. To try and stop this from happening (many think due to the fact that there is oil off of the north coast of Scotland that the UK need) the English government offers financial and social support. This leads to clashes as the British people believe that it is unfair that for instance they have to pay for university tuition fees and the Scottish students too.

To conclude, it is easy to show how badly separatism can impact of both society, the environment and the economy in a country and across borders (Scotland). However in more cases than not it seems that it leads to violence as people struggle to have their voices listened to and thus lash out aggressively. This can be shown by the fact that Scotland and the UK have not had violent clashes, as their voices are being listened to and acknowledged.  I would also say that when looking at the Kurds and Sri Lankan civil war, it seems to be that the main consequences of separatism tend to be social. This in some ways could be said to be ironic and in many cases the causes of the Separatism in the first place is social issues. Finally is would seem that when looking at Scotland compared to example such as Sri Lanka; when there is a well-established government overviewing the whole scenario, it tends not to lead to aggression and thus the consequences are far less.

By Sam Evatt

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